Gyula mezővárosi státusa az oklevelek tükrében

Halmágyi Miklós: Gyula mezővárosi státusa az oklevelek tükrében. In: Mezővárosok a Dél-Alföldön = Market Towns on the Southern Part of the Hungarian Great Plain. pp. 67-87. (2022)

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Gyula is a town in the south-eastern part of the contemporary Hungary. In a relatively short period – between 1403 and 1419 – quite different terms were used in connection with Gyula. The settlement was mentioned in 1332 for the first time as ‘villa Gula’ – village Gyula. The priest of the settlement paid 20 grossos – name for a coin – to the Pope as a tithe. In 1396 a civis – citizen – of Gyula was mentioned, who bought an estate in Mezőgyán. On the 5th November in 1403, Sigmund of Luxembourg, King of Hungary, gave his baron, John of Marot, several localities in the region of the contemporary south-eastern Hungary. Among these localities was Gyula, as a possessio – it means possession, but it could have the meaning of village as well. In 1405 Gyula was mentioned for the first time as a civitas – city. This charter is about a lawsuit about an estate called Fejérem. Frank of Szécsény – Judge Royal of Hungary (Judge of the Royal Court) – judged the settlement of Fejérem in Békés County to the Chapter of Eger against Barnabás of Fejérem. At the trial, Barnabas of Fejérem did not appear personally before the Judge Royal, although had been summoned to appear in the court during three municipal fairs: in the ‘village’ of Simánd, in the ‘city’ of Gyula and in the ‘village’ of Békés. The charter mentions Gyula as civitas that means city. In 1419 King Sigismund mentioned Gyula at first as a possession, later as a market town (oppidum) in the same charter. According to this charter, John of Marót, Ban of Macho, accused the noblemen, Stephen and Emeric, the sons of Abraham of Gerla, of using some of his properties of those belonged to his ‘possessiones’ Gyula and Bekes, Gywr and Beren. Stephen and Emeric protected themselves claiming they used only their own property, on the waterside called Fabyanfwka. They received it from the former kings as John of Marót received the market town – oppidum – Gyula from Sigismund. The term possessio in this context perhaps reflects Maróti’s point of view: Gyula belonged to him. On the other hand, the term oppidum – market town – probably reflects the point of view of the Abraham’son brothers: they emphasise the importance of the locality. Gyula was a locality owned by landlords. The inhabitants were serfs, according to the law. On the other hand, the settlement played a role of a city in this region because of the number of the inhabitants and because of its economic, social, religious and culture importance. The different terms may be explained by the fact that people speaking in the documents wanted to emphasise different things: the words ‘oppidum’ and ‘civitas’ qualify the relevance of the locality, and the term ‘possessio’ may indicate that the settlement is owned by a landlord. Another explanation for the different terms may be that contemporary authors used different words (oppidum, civitas) for the same phenomenon.

Other title: The condition of Gyula as a market town in the mirror of the sources
Item Type: Book Section
Journal or Publication Title: Mezővárosok a Dél-Alföldön = Market Towns on the Southern Part of the Hungarian Great Plain
ISBN: 978-615-01-5251-6
Language: magyar, angol
Publisher: Wenckheim Krisztina Városfejlesztési és Környezetvédelmi Közalapítvány
Place of Publication: Gyula
Event Title: Mezővárosok a Dél-Alföldön (Gyula) (2019)
Date: 2022
Page Range: pp. 67-87
Additional Information: Bibliogr.: p. 83-85. és a lábjegyzetekben ; összefoglalás angol nyelven
Uncontrolled Keywords: Gyula története - középkor
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Date Deposited: 2022. Aug. 23. 12:32
Last Modified: 2022. Aug. 23. 12:32

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